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Global Warming: John Mercer Glaciologists Announces Dangers of Climate Change

John MercerGlaciology, John Mercer, And The Early Signs of Global Warming

To John Mercer, the concept of global warming and catastrophic regional flooding was not new. It’s been happening for ages, and the glaciologists who study the behavior of ice in seriously large quantities have long taken a special interest in flooding. They give a name “jökulhlaup,” from Icelandic, to the explosive event that occurs when the buildup of water behind a glacier breaks free from the confines of the glacier. In small scale, it happens often. But for a grand example, consider the flooding that washed over Washington State when a supposed glacier-locked lake burst loose on the nation.

For most scientists, arguments concerning the meanings of the ridges in the scablands ended in the 1940s. Geologists, in general, agree that the scabland ridges are larger and more expressive versions of the ripples sometimes seen in mud on a creek bed. Yet before 1940, many scientific leaders continued to argue against the concept of any rapid changes in the world water table. However, some men did hold to a different timetable. Even back in 1947 Swedish geophysicists Hans Ahlmann argued that global warming might push the threat of catastrophic flooding right into the present century. Still, for the larger part of research and study, it was into the 1960s before scientists began to consider global warming as a possible threat to modern man.

The idea of major climate-related disasters grew slowly. In 1962, John Hollin argued the danger of small climate changes and how they could affect ice in Antarctica (1). Hollin and Alex Wilson, a fellow believer, expressed grave concerns that immense sheets of ice could soon be floating across the southern oceans. They wrote of tsunamis, rising sea levels, and a mountainous glacier rushing forward at hundreds of meters per day. But very few others joined the outcry. The Hollin / Wilson vision was too imaginative, too far reaching, and too “unlikely.” With the Antarctica glacier anchor ranging more than four kilometers in depth, Hollin’s arguments that rising seas would lift it free of the root bedrock seemed highly unlikely.

 

Global Warming – A Shout From John Mercer.

Even into the 1970s, global warming remained far outside the realm of public concern. But not so for an Ohio State University glaciologist named John Mercer. To Mr. Mercer, Global warming affecting the icecertain disturbing similarities and dissimilarities between the Eurasian Artic and the western Antarctica needed immediate attention. For example: The continental shelf of both Polar Regions was but a few hundred meters deep. However the 2.5-kilometer thick ice sheet resting on the western Antarctica reflects a sharp contrast to the Eurasian Artic with its nearly non-existent layer of grounded ice.

To Mercer, the distinctions indicated great threat possibilities from global warming. If the ice sheet that covered western Antarctica should disintegrate, the known sea level could raise by as much as six meters. Coastlines throughout the world would experience indescribable flooding.

Mercer’s findings, theories and the resultant investigation concerning the Eurasian Arctic and the associated glacial history evoked mixed opinions. Scientists exchanged papers and test results – many of them expressing contradictory views. And even as the arguments continued, the European Science Foundation initiated new and more intensive research programs. From seven European countries, over 50 scientists took part in the first POlar North Atlantic Margins (PONAM) study of the Barents Sea.

But in the end result of all the studies and testing, researchers determined that the west Antarctic ice sheet was capable of “resisting substantial rises in sea level” (2). However, although not taken seriously, some risk factors were acknowledged:

  • The melt-rate could increase if the ocean around Antarctica warmed
  • Unless balanced by snowfall and in increase in evaporation, the ices shelves could eventually disappear.

Thus the west Antarctic ice sheet could be at risk of rapid collapse. An increase in global rise in sea level could follow. Yet the arguments continued, and most scientists in the group protested that Mercer’s “threat of disaster” was far, far into the future. Leaping ahead to 2014. In a recent New York Times report, modern scientists are claiming that the collapse of the ice sheet is already in progress. A catastrophic rise in sea levels seems inevitable, or so they say. Look for it in upcoming journal releases from both Science and the Geophysical Research Letters.

It seems that John Mercer was indeed a man ahead of the times.

 

Article presented as a part of the ongoing American Cooling and Heating educational series. For more information on American Cooling and Heating, click here.

Disclaimer: This article and its content do not constitute legal, financial, technical, or medical advice. While every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that this document is correct at the time of publication, the company and its employees and agents disclaim any and all liability to any person in respect of anything or the consequences of anything done or omitted to be done in reliance upon the whole or any part of this article and its content. All trademarks, logos, and associated content displayed are the property of their respective owners.

 

1) http://www.aip.org/history/climate/bib.htm#82

2) American Scientist, P.O. Box 13975, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709, U.S.A.

 Reff http://www.aip.org/history/climate/floods.htm

Reff http://oceans.mit.edu/featured-stories/modeler-observationalist-divide-eyes-greenland

 

Climate Change in Arizona – The Economic Impact Of Climate Change On Arizona Citizens

Global Warming Plot Of NASA GISS DataArizona residents are well familiar with the blunt-force temperatures of climate change. But now the economic consequences are also mounting. Join American Cooling and Heating in this brief overview of global warming cost-and-effect in Arizona.

Even as politicians argue the validity of global warming, the economic burden of laws designed to reduce and control human-triggered climate change wrap heavy hands around the livelihood of citizens in Arizona and other regions of the Southwest U.S.,” local spokesperson for ACH in Arizona.

Managing Global Warming, Climate Change and the Economic Fallout

After enduring over a decade of year-by-year temperature increases averaging nearly two degrees Fahrenheit, Arizona residents don’t tend to argue the validity of global warming or the reality of undesirable climate change. The heat is here. This South-western state has experienced the highest brute-force temperature change of any of the lower 48 states in the U.S. Long-term heat increases seem a permanent complication. Recent studies indicate that by 2050 Arizona citizens can expect to see regional temperatures climb by another three to five degrees.

So why do the residents of this fine state resist the industrial changes that can help reduce the problem?

Fixing global warming requires economic sacrifice. In a nation already struggling against a fragile economy, such sacrifice seems unreasonable. Surrendering daily bread in exchange for resolving long-term climate change seems a sour tradeoff. According to the senior vice president of communications at the American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity, Laura Sheehan, issues pertaining to climate change should be taking a back seat to current economic demands (1). Too many people perceive Obama’s climate change agenda as political rather than essential. Real issues are at state. Across the country, families are struggling to pay bills, meet necessary health care conditions, and provide for a bit of comfort in a troubled world.

But restraint is not the only mindset. According to Frances Beinecke from the Natural Resources Defense Council, acting now to eliminate human-triggered climate change will help the economy by providing new jobs, lower cooling costs, and a healthier environment. Yet for most people, fixing global warming should not be in the Top 10 list of national priorities. Climate change is an issue to be addressed, but one look at what is going on in Arizona reveals an unacceptable measure of economic sacrifice.

Commissioned regulations crafted to ensure a reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases are already in effect. And they are promoting increased economic burdens on all local industries, including the agricultural industry, an industry of primary strength in the American Southwest. With a March 2014 unemployment rate of 7.3, Arizona hangs with the top eight highest levels of unemployed in the nation (2). Laws that burden industry with additional expenses hinder employment opportunities.

Arizona residents are prodding government agencies to fix the current problems rather than the long-term human-triggered climate change issues. For families already suffering due to new regulations associated with fixing global warming, the demand is that Arizona leaders establish laws that successfully reduce the impact of human-triggered climate change without trashing the economic stability of the affected regions.

Climate Change in Arizona – Obvious But Not So Important As Having a Job

Economic prosperity requires progressive growth. Yet urban expansion generates higher urban heat tables. In recent years, the nighttime temperatures in Arizona have exceeded those of the adjoining states by as great an increase as 10 degrees. However, the laws designed to correct global warming increase business operating costs and hinder progress. The Arizona economy suffers the fallout. Businesses go under. Locals lose jobs. And families pay the higher cost for controlling local human-triggered climate change.

Throughout the Southwest:

  • Summertime grows hotter
  • Above normal high temperatures has become the normal
  • 90 degree-plus nighttime temperatures are on the increase
  • The local water table is decreasing
  • Water pollution is on the increase
  • Fire, dust and dry land shadow daily life
  • Local precipitation has decreased
  • According to scientific predictions: By the mid-century, Arizona will suffer a 40-percent decrease in usable water.

Reports from the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) indicate that the decrease in local precipitation will affect growth in all major local industry sectors including:

  • Agriculture
  • Mining
  • Utilities
  • AND more.

The consequences of accumulated industrial losses will affect consumer incomes, consumer spending and population growth throughout state. According to the SNL economic study, Arizona lingers as one of the most vulnerable states in the nation. With regional agriculture and ranching industries already struggling for survival, the cost of the economic fallout on marginalized farmers may be too great to withstand.

It’s not yet a panic situation, but for most Arizona residents the necessity to deal with the immediate economic problems far outweighs any need for correcting long-term global warming issues. Arizona local, state and federal agencies need to equalize the cost structure and establish an economically practical resolution to the effects of global warming.

 

From more information on climate change, click here.

Disclaimer: This article and its content do not constitute legal, financial, technical, or medical advice. While every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that this document is correct at the time of publication, the company and its employees and agents disclaim any and all liability to any person in respect of anything or the consequences of anything done or omitted to be done in reliance upon the whole or any part of this article and its content. All trademarks, logos, and associated content displayed are the property of their respective owners. 

 

1)      http://m.csmonitor.com/Environment/2014/0506/No-region-of-US-untouched-by-climate-change-but-effects-vary-report-finds-video

2)      http://www.bls.gov/web/laus/lauhsthl.htm

 

Arizona Air Conditioning Center Launches Information Portal For Distributing Updates On Issues Concerning Global Warming and Climate Change

Global Warming and Urban Growth

Global Warming In The News

American Cooling and Heating today announced the launch of http://www.americancoolingandheating.com/category/global-warming-2/climate-change-global-warming-2 as an Arizona information portal to help Valley homeowners stay abreast with how global warming and climate change affects rural and urban living.

American Cooling and Heating today gets underway with a new global warming and climate change information gateway. The new A/C website category. http://www.americancoolingandheating.com/category/global-warming-2/climate-change-global-warming-2, is designed to provide Arizona residents with up-to-date content on the changes, effects and solutions that global warming imposes on rural and urban environments. Articles currently in place reflect on:

** The nature of climate change

** The current progress in the world effort to curb global warming

** AND the relationship between modern air conditioning technologies to the down-home Valley-specific demands for increased performance from available cooling equipment.

Global Warming – Reliable Phoenix Resources

ACH purposes to be the primary web information center for regional-Phoenix residents and business owners on matters pertaining to climate change, anticipated government and business responses to climate change, and reflective issues pertaining to Arizona heating and cooling home improvement options. Current and future Website planning includes:

** Weekly global warming updates

** Heating and cooling educational equipment guides

** AND specific A/C installation and A/C maintenance tips for Phoenix-regional homeowners and business owners.

Scot Morgan of American Cooling and Heating stated: “We aim to become the premier home and family information outlet for helping Arizona homeowners make informed A/C and Heat Pump decisions. The depth of knowledge available via our new http://www.americancoolingandheating.com/category/global-warming-2/climate-change-global-warming-2 category provides sensible, concise and usable climate change updates.”

Already rated as a resource for invaluable HVAC feedback, ACH has worked hard to make this new global warming information category efficient, easy to navigate and fully reliable. The Company has always strived to help Valley homeowners understand and access information on heating and cooling technology. But the accumulating effects of climate warming ups the ante. Changes in global and local temperatures continue to increase the demand for better and more efficient HVAC cooling equipment. Society can no longer afford to ignore the strategies at work on the global warming warfront – neither can the companies who are currently responsible for delivering quality HVAC solutions.

About American Cooling and Heating

Licensed, bonded and insured, ACH is founded on the principles of integrity and quality workmanship in the HVAC marketplace. Established in 1993, the company services a wide range of clientele in both the local community and the global community. All Company technicians must pass drug screening, intensive background checks and custom-designed skill and performance craftsmanship exams.

AZROC K79 license 183933 Residential, Commercial, Industrial, HVAC and Refrigeration Contractor

AZROC KB2 license 238225 Residential, Commercial General Contractor

TDLR TACLA21146C Residential, Commercial, Industrial, HVAC and Refrigeration Contractor

ACH: Servicing and installing Amana, Carrier, Goodman, Rheem, Trane and others.

 

 

Rural Climate Change – What Does Global Warming and Climate Change Mean To Rural America?

Rural Climate Change, Morning in DesertThe Three-Stage Effect of Rural Climate Change – A 2014 Global Warming Update For Rural America From Arizona Air Conditioning Service Center, American Cooling and Heating

“Climate change and the associated accumulation of global warming directly impacts rural economies and rural populations. According to the Rural Policy Research Institute, current and future climate change legislation will affect rural landscapes, rural prosperity and rural livelihoods (1),” Phoenix ACH research department.

The Three-Stage Cause and Effects of Rural Climate Change

Climate change as defined by a layperson might simply declare global warming the result of man-inflamed changes in global climate. Such a brief definition would not be far off base. However, the official definition from the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) establishes a three-point structure behind such shifts in climate. The process is as follows:

  1. Either directly or indirectly, human activities alter the composition of the global atmosphere
  2. The changes aggravated by human activities increase the natural variances in climate shifts
  3. The difference between human provoked changes and the natural shifts in climate can be measured and applied to a comparable time frame (2).

Since the IPCC definition focuses directly to human activities, each segment of society experiences a slightly different process of causes, effects and solutions. For rural U.S. communities, the effects of climate change impacts three primary components of life.

  1. The economics and the populations of the rural region
  2. The changes to rural prosperity and rural methods of earning a livelihood as a result of ongoing policies and legislation for mitigation and adaptation
  3.  AND the effects of mitigation and adaptation on the management of rural landscapes.

The rural economy thrives on the natural environment. From agricultural land to watersheds and from fisheries to range-lands, rural communities stand as stewards for the nation. The effects of rural climate change are both positive and negative. Increased levels of carbon dioxide promote quicker and stronger plant growth. However, changes in the atmospheric patterns of precipitation promote water-related complications including droughts, floods, and an increased risk of extreme storms in all areas.

Rural climate change also increases the risks assumed by climate-vulnerable individuals. From seniors to children and from the poor to the destitute, many rural individuals and Rural Climate Changegroups fall into a unique danger zone defined as the “climate gap,” a concept that is primarily associated with the less physically adaptable or less economically adaptable members of U.S. rural society.

Reports from various economic studies indicate that climate change may seriously reduce job opportunities in the agriculture sector of U.S. employment. Furthermore, the current and future “climate crisis” solutions will likely increase the costs related to rural farming and food production. Thus those members of society who fall into the “climate gap” may be forced to struggle even harder for both food and survival.

For many senior citizens and many of the people who are too poor to afford adequate health care, home air conditioning, and other protection from extreme weather, the “climate Rural Climate Change gap” will continue to widen both in inner city communities and in rural communities. Yet according to the Ford Foundation, many of the current climate change policies are flawed and actually increase the vulnerability of people in rural communities (3). U.S. policy makers must keep a close eye on closing the gaps. Research, networking among organizations, and communications help level the playing field, but this aspect of the cause and effect of global warming is far from secure;

What Does Global Warming and Climate Change Mean To Rural America?

Rural communities are responsible for a significant measure of climate change. For example: Rural agricultural emissions kick out up to six-percent of the U.S. annual GGE disturbances. A lack of public transportation in rural areas amplifies the problem, and even those rural residents with personal transportation typically travel longer distances than their urban neighbors.

Furthermore, the effects of greenhouse gas mitigation in rural areas is regional uneven. Big competitors in the food market produce the greater potential for generating greenhouse gases. Regions such as the Rockies and the Southwest are least responsible for greenhouse gases. Yet each group falls under certain aspects of the national mitigation and adaptation policies and strategies

The process of global warming management and control requires an overall integrated approach that includes:

  • Policy tools
  • Application of renewable energy resources Investment in on-going climate change research
  • Renewed attention to energy conservation
  • Better management of forests, range-lands and wetlands
  • Advanced methods for preventing complications associated with fire and erosion
  • New agricultural practices dedicated to reduced emissions, changes in livestock feed products, better farming practices and better control of rotational grazing.

Every local and state region has crafted some measures for managing man-evoked changes in the Earth’s climate. The IPCC presented the results of studies and projections. More policies and rules are yet to come. Understanding how climate change, global warming and all the upcoming rules and regulations will affect rural America is still a question in the making. Meantime, rural America is already mixed up in the struggles.

Global warming and climate change series presented by American Cooling and Heating, Arizona HVAC Sales and Service for Trane, Amana, Goodman, Rheem, Carrier and all other major HVAC brands. For information on current ACH 2014 A/C product promotions, contact: http://www.americancoolingandheating.com

 

 

 

Disclaimer:

This article and its content do not constitute legal, financial, technical, or medical advice. While every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that this document is correct at the time of publication, the company and its employees and agents disclaim any and all liability to any person in respect of anything or the consequences of anything done or omitted to be done in reliance upon the whole or any part of this article and its content. All trademarks, logos, and associated content displayed are the property of their respective owners.

  1. http://www.rupri.org/Forms/Climate_Change_Brief.pdf
  2. http://ipcc-wg2.gov/AR5/report/final-drafts
  3. http://www.fordfoundation.org/issues/sustainable-development/climate-change-responses-that-strengthen-rural-communities

Reverse Climate Change – Arizona HVAC Company Reflects on the Global Challenge

Climate Change on a Crowded PlanetAmerican Cooling and Heating Announces New Entry In the Global Warming Series – Reviewing Current Efforts To Reverse Climate Change

“Words from Berlin suggest that a modest global investment in alternative energy resources can keep global warming in check. But what is the actual definition of “modest?” local American Cooling and Heating tech manager.

Due to increasing interest in global warming and the associated effects in climate change, American Cooling and Heating has determined to help expand public awareness of current discussions and concepts. This press release is one of several in the ACH Global Warming series.

A Global Effort To Reverse Climate Change

According to the UN Climate Change Panel, quick action can restrain the cost of managing global warming. Immediate changes to the process of how energy is manufactured can be accomplished within a reasonably modest price range. But IPCC chairman Rajendra Pachauri makes perfectly clear that the solutions must involve immediate and decisive action. The tools are at hand. Climate change can be reversed and without a major disruption of world economic systems. But today is the day for action.

Consisting mainly of CO2, the buildup of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere comes mainly from the burning of fossil fuels. In the power sector, the use of coal has increased by 2.2 percent per year between 2000 and 2010. And the problem of Global Warming generates a catch-22 environment. As the global heat index rises, so too do the demands for air-conditioning and other cooling services, all of which require electrical energy as a power source.

Unless the world takes additional and appropriate measures, containment of emissions will continue to become more difficult. According to the IPCC panel, by the year 2100 the world will endure a 5 to 7 degrees Fahrenheit increase in temperatures.

The greatest part of the balancing load falls upon governments and energy providers. According to the IPCC, shifting energy resources from fossil fuels to low-carbon or zero-carbon resources can reduce the growth of power consumption by around 0.06 percentage points per year. It is a modest consumption rate that will work. Alternative sources for renewable energy include solar and wind power devices. U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry says that anything entailing a near quadrupling of low-carbon energy supply lines is welcome as a global economic opportunity. The IPCC is not calling for major changes. As mister Pachauri has stated in other news reports, “The loss in consumption is relatively modest.”

Opposite Views On Reversal of Climate Change Don’t Change Common Sense

Now the IPCC predicts a large-scale change in the fossil fuel investment quarter, a change that will drop by $30 billion annually even as investments in low-carbon resources expand by nearly $150 billion. And none of this takes into account the estimated $336 billion increase in energy efficiency applications that apply to the building, industrial and transport sectors.

On the other hand, oil and gas companies project a different viewpoint. So far as Exxon Mobil is concerned, adjusting for climate change is unlikely to greatly influence the sell of fossil fuels in any foreseeable near future (1).

Even in the Berlin climate change meeting, a dispute disrupted the flow of the discussion. Even as the evidence of climate change becomes indisputable, issues of cause, effect and management continue to trouble the “big” names in the discussion. Yet one matter remains primary on the board. According to the IPCC, time is running out, not for solutions but for cost-effect solutions. President of the Natural Resources Defense Council, Frances Beinecke, says that the solution “… requires decisive actions to curb carbon pollution — and an all-out race to embrace renewable sources of energy. History is calling.”

Summer heat can trigger asthma attacks, migraine headaches and even dehydration. Climate change is raising the heat ceiling and forcing a global increase in the use of heating and cooling equipment. To learn more about the American Cooling and Heating global warming series, click here.

 

 

Disclaimer:

 

This article and its content do not constitute legal, financial, technical, or medical advice. While every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that this document is correct at the time of publication, the company and its employees and agents disclaim any and all liability to any person in respect of anything or the consequences of anything done or omitted to be done in reliance upon the whole or any part of this article and its content. All trademarks, logos, and associated content displayed are the property of their respective owners.

1) http://www.csmonitor.com/Environment/Energy-Voices/2014/0403/UN-to-oil-industry-You-can-solve-climate-change

 

 

 

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